Who Is Allah?
Abu Iman Abd ar-Rahman Robert Squires. © Muslim Answers
of the biggest misconceptions that many non-Muslims have about Islam have
to do with the word "Allah". For various reasons, many
people have come to believe that Muslims worship a different God than
Christians and Jews. This is totally false, since "Allah"
is simply the Arabic word for "God" - and there is only
One God. Let there be no doubt - Muslims worship the God of Noah,
Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus - peace be upon them all. However, it
is certainly true that Jews, Christians and Muslims all have different
concepts of Almighty God. For example, Muslims - like Jews - reject the
Christian beliefs of the Trinity and the Divine Incarnation. This,
however, doesn't mean that each of these three religions worships a different
God - because, as we have already said, there is only One True God.
Judaism, Christianity and Islam all claim to be "Abrahamic
Faiths", and all of them are also classified as "monotheistic".
However, Islam teaches that other religions have, in one way or another,
distorted and nullified a pure and proper belief in Almighty God by
neglecting His true teachings and mixing them with man-made ideas.
of all, it is important to note that "Allah" is the same
word that Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews use for God. If you pick up
an Arabic Bible, you will see the word "Allah" being used
where "God" is used in English. This is because "Allah"
is the only word in the Arabic language equivalent to the English word "God"
with a capital "G". Additionally, the word "Allah"
cannot be made plural or given gender (i.e. masculine or feminine), which
goes hand-in-hand with the Islamic concept of God. Because of this, and
also because the Qur'an, which is the holy scripture of Muslims, was
revealed in the Arabic language, some Muslims use the word "Allah"
for "God", even when they are speaking other languages.
This is not unique to the word "Allah", since many
Muslims tend to use Arabic words when discussing Islamic issues,
regardless of the language which they speak. This is because the universal
teachings of Islam - even though they have been translated in every major
language - have been preserved in the Arabic language.
is interesting to note that the Aramaic word "El", which
is the word for God in the language that Jesus spoke, is certainly more
similar in sound to the word "Allah" than the English
word "God". This also holds true for the various Hebrew
words for God, which are "El" and "Elah",
and the plural form "Elohim". The reason for these
similarities is that Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic are all Semitic languages
with common origins. It should also be noted that in translating the Bible
into English, the Hebrew word "El" is translated
variously as "God", "god" and "angel"!
This imprecise language allows different translators, based on their
preconceived notions, to translate the word to fit their own views. The
Arabic word "Allah" presents no such difficulty or
ambiguity, since it is only used for Almighty God alone. Additionally, in
English, the only difference between "god", meaning a
false god, and "God", meaning the One True God, is the
capital "G". In the Arabic alphabet, since it does not
have capital letters, the word for God (i.e. Allah) is formed by
adding the equivalent to the English word "the" (Al-)
to the Arabic word for "god/God" (ilah). So the
Arabic word "Allah" literally it means "The
God" - the "Al-" in Arabic basically serving the
same function as the capital "G" in English. Due to the
above mentioned facts, a more accurate translation of the word "Allah"
into English might be "The One -and-Only God" or "The
One True God".
importantly, it should also be noted that the Arabic word "Allah"
contains a deep religious message due to its root meaning and origin. This
is because it stems from the Arabic verb ta'allaha (or alaha),
which means "to be worshipped". Thus in Arabic, the word "Allah"
means "The One who deserves all worship". This, in a
nutshell, is the Pure Monotheistic message of Islam. You see, according to
Islam, "monotheism" is much more than simply believing in
the existence of "only One God" - as seemingly
opposed to two, three or more. If one understands the root meaning of the
word "Allah", this point should become clear. One should
understand that Islam's criticism of the other religions that claim to be "monotheistic"
is not because they are "polytheistic" in the
classic sense, but because they direct various forms of worship to
other than Almighty God. We will discuss the meaning of worship in Islam
below, however, before moving on it should be noted that many non-Muslims
are unaware of the distinction between simply believing in the existence
of only One God and reserving all worship for Him alone.
Many Christians are painfully unaware of this point, and thus you often
find them asking how Muslims can accuse the followers of Jesus, peace be
upon him, of being "polytheists" when they were all "monotheistic
Jews". First of all, it should be clarified that the word "polytheist"
doesn't really sound right in this context, since to many it implies
simply believing in the existence of more than one God. So in an
Islamic context, "associators", "man-worshippers"
or "creature worshippers" might be more accurate and
appropriate terms - especially since Christians believe Jesus to be both "100%
God and 100% man", while still paying lip-service to God's "Oneness".
However, as we're previously touched upon, what is really at the root of
this problem is the fact that Christians - as well as the members of other
religions - don't really know what "monotheism" means -
especially in the Islamic sense. All of the books, articles and papers
that I've read which were written by Christians invariably limit "monotheism"
to believing in the existence of "One Sovereign and Creator
God". Islam, however, teaches much more than this.
it to say that just because someone claims to be a "monotheistic"
Jew, Christian or Muslim, that doesn't keep them from falling into corrupt
beliefs and idolatrous practices. Many people, including some Muslims,
claim belief in "One God" even though they've fallen into
acts of idolatry. Certainly, many Protestants accuse Roman Catholics of
idolatrous practices in regards to the saints and the Virgin Mary.
Likewise, the Greek Orthodox Church is considered "idolatrous"
by many other Christians because in much of their worship they use icons.
However, if you ask a Roman Catholic or a Greek Orthodox person if God is "One",
they will invariably answer: "Yes!". This lip-service,
however, does not stop them from being "creature worshipping"
idolaters. The same goes for Hindus, who just consider their gods to be "manifestations"
or "incarnations" of the One Supreme God.
should be aware of the fact that throughout the long history of the "Abrahamic
Faiths", there have people who, while believing in "One
God", have adopted beliefs and practices that completely nullify
their claim to "monotheism". This is the Muslim view of
Christians. We're well aware of the fact that they claim belief in "One
God" with their lips, but this doesn't mean that they don't
nullify their claim in other ways. This is because many people simply
haven't been taught everything that Pure Monotheism entails. From an
Islamic point of view, "monotheism" can be nullified in
many ways. For example, simply believing that it is permissible to rule by
Western "liberal" and "democratic" laws
in lieu of the Divinely Revealed Law of Almighty God makes one a "polytheist".
Certainly, a person who does such a thing, whether Jewish, Christian or
Muslim, doesn't ever believe that there is another Almighty Creator and
Sovereign Lord. However, for all practical purposes, such a person has
take another "god", whether they choose to admit it or
not. In this way they are associating partners with Almighty God (Arabic: shirk),
and thus become a "polytheist" in a practical sense,
regardless of their lip-service to "monotheism". This
holds true even if the person doesn't believe what they are doing is "worship".
For example, Roman Catholics who pray to the Virgin Mary will staunchly
deny that they are "worshipping" her. They instead call
it "adoration" or some other watered-down term. However,
from an Islamic point of view, what is worship if not this? Islam teaches
that prayer and supplication are the marrow of worship, so if one directs
their prayers to an intermediary (even if the pray is "ultimately"
meant for God), then what is left of worship? Additionally, how can
someone who believes in Almighty God follow man-made laws instead of God's
Law, without admitting that they've begun worshipping other than God? Do
they know better than God?
the Old Testament makes it perfectly clear that making a "graven
image" of any created thing (not to mention ones which are
supposed to "represent" Almighty God) is prohibited.
Please see Exodus 20:4-6, Leviticus 26:1 and Deuteronomy
, 23, 25, 5:8 and
Nehemiah 9:6 for some statements in regards to this point. Without
addressing the issue that Christians commonly violate the unambiguous
commandment not to even "make" representations of
anything that is in the "heavens above or on the earth
beneath", these verses not only teach that worshipping idols is
prohibited, but also that Almighty God is eternally distinct from His
creation and thus nothing in His creation can represent Him. To
believe otherwise is to be a de facto idol worshipper - even if one
claims belief in one, and only one, "True God". In Exodus
20:4-6 and Deuteronomy 4:16, Almighty God - who is a "Jealous
God" - makes it perfectly clear that He is distinct from His
giving such clear and merciful guidance to human beings, God is
establishing a universal and eternal Truth for the benefit of mankind.
This eternal Truth is the bedrock of religious guidance, since once people
begin to believe that Almighty God mixes with or can be represented by His
creation, they can be duped into believing almost anything. Once someone
accepts that God has become "incarnate" in His creation,
or that someone or something is a "manifestation" - and
thus representation - of Him, the floodgates are open and "Truth"
becomes a matter of subjective guesswork. Once the first and most basic
concept is violated - regardless of how complicated and sophisticated the
rationale for it might be - it is very easy to fall further and further
away from the Eternal Truth of Pure Monotheism. In the final analysis, it
is not a question of whether God is capable of becoming a man, but rather
a question of whether one bases their beliefs about God on clear,
unambiguous and authentic guidance. Once it is left up to the human mind
to decide what Almighty God can and cannot do, the stage is set for
misguidance to take root. Human speculation about God only ends up leading
to misguidance and despair, since no clear conclusions can ever be
reached. For example, is God capable of creating an object so heavy that
He is incapable of moving it? If not, does that mean that He is incapable?
It is because of misguided questions like this that Islam clearly teaches
that mankind should only say about God what He has said about Himself.
This means all of our ideas about God must be based on Revelation - not
human speculation. In short, the final prophet of Islam - Muhammad - was
sent by Almighty God to preach the same Pure Monotheism that was practiced
by Noah, Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus - peace be upon them all. This
Pure Monotheism means not only believing that there is only One God in
existence, but realizing that He is transcedent above His creation and
that all worship is due to Him alone.
concluding, we should probably address the practice of those Muslims who insist
on using the Arabic word "Allah" even when speaking
English. Even though this practice certainly is not to be condemned
when it is done around those who understand the meaning of the Arabic word
"Allah", it is my experience - both during my years as a
non-Muslim and my years as a Muslim - that such a practice can (and
usually does) breed misunderstanding. It seems that often times, many of
the Muslims who use the word "Allah" in lieu of the word "God",
even when trying to attract people to Islam, are unaware of the
severe misunderstandings that many non-Muslims have about Islam (and the
distorted way which Islam has been portrayed in the West). Insisting on
using the word "Allah" only fuels the flames of
misunderstanding - so there's no good reason to do it. I've often wondered
what value some Muslims think that using the word "Allah"
adds to the Pure Message that they are trying to convey. ( . . . and I'm
still waiting for an answer!) Unfortunately, those Muslims who insist on
using the word "Allah" even when addressing non-Muslims
who are unfamiliar with Islam and the Arabic language, do both a
disservice to themselves and their religion. Unfortunately, this practice
is usually based on the false assumption - by a non-native speaker of
English - that the word "God" in English is incapable of
expressing a pure and proper belief in Almighty God. This is certainly
false. If someone says that the English word "God" cannot
be used to express the Pure Islamic Belief in Tawhid, they are
wrong not because they don't understand Tawhid, but simply
because they don't understand the English language. Many people who insist
on using the Arabic word "Allah" usually don't realize
this, because in reality, they are not so much affirming the word "Allah"
as they are rejecting the word "God" as unsuitable -
based on incorrect assumptions. For someone to assume that the word "God"
presupposes a certain theological point-of-view (such as the Trinity) is
simply Wrong - and that's Wrong with a capital "W". To say the
word "God" should be rejected because it can be changed
into "god", "gods" or "goddess"
is illogical because each of these words has a distinctive meaning
and a distinctive spelling - at least to someone who knows how to
speak English correctly. Using the same logic, I can demonstrate that the
root letters "ktb" can be used to form the Arabic words "kitab"
(book), "maktabah" (library), "maktab"
(office) and "kaatib" (writer), but does that mean that
these words have the same meaning? Do Arabic-speaking people go through
life confusing libraries with writers and offices with books (both in
conversation and in reality)? I think not! This is not to mention the fact
that if the Arabic "Al-" was put in front of these words
in order to make them definite, confusion would be even less likely! So
the logic in both cases is the same, and this is because even though the
same letters are used in "God" and "god",
these two words have two different meanings in the English language. The
capital "G" implies something different than the small "g"
- and anyone who denies this simply doesn't know how to speak the English
concluding this point, it should be mentioned that Arabic-speaking Muslims
who believe in Pure Tawhid, Arabic-speaking Christians, the idol
worshippers of Mecca and (so-called) Muslims who believe in "Wahdat
al-Wujud" all use the word "Allah". However,
does this guarantee all of them proper belief in "Allah"?
Certainly not, because if they have a corrupt concept of "Allah"
it doesn't matter what word they use!
brings us to a more important point: It should be clearly understood that
what Islam is primarily concerned with is correcting mankind's concept
of Almighty God. What we are ultimately going to be held accountable at
the end of our life is not whether we prefer the word "Allah"
over the word "God", but what our concept of God is.
Language is only a side issue. A person can have an incorrect concept of
God while using the word "Allah", and likewise a person
can have a correct concept of God while using the word "God".
This is because both of these words are equally capable of being misused
and being improperly defined. As we've already mentioned, using the word "Allah"
no more insinuates belief in the Unity of God than the use of the word "God"
insinuates belief in the Trinity - or any other theological opinion.
Naturally, when God sends a revelation to mankind through a prophet, He is
going to send it in a language that the people who receive it can
understand and relate to. Almighty God makes this clear in the Qur'an,
when He states:
did We send a Messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own)
people in order to make (things) clear to them."
Chapter 14 - "Abraham", Verse 4)
Muslims, we think that it is unfortunate that we have to go into details
on such seemingly minor issues, but so many falsehoods have been heaped
upon our religion, that we feel that it is our duty to try to break down
the barriers of falsehood. This isn't always easy, since there is a lot of
anti-Islamic literature in existence which tries to make Islam look like
something strange and foreign to Westerners. There are some people out
there, who are obviously not on the side of truth, that want to get people
to believe that "Allah" is just some Arabian "god",
and that Islam is completely "other" - meaning that it
has no common roots with the other Abrahamic religions (i.e.
Christianity and Judaism). To say that Muslims worship a different "God"
because they say "Allah" is just as illogical as saying
that French people worship another God because they use the word "Dieu",
that Spanish-speaking people worship a different God because they say "Dios"
or that the Hebrews worshipped a different God because they sometimes call
Him "Yahweh". Certainly, reasoning like this is quite
ridiculous! It should also be mentioned, that claiming that any one
language uses the only the correct word for God is tantamount to denying
the universality of God's message to mankind, which was to all nations,
tribes and people through various prophets who spoke different languages.
closing, we would like everyone to be aware of the fact that some
Christian missionary organizations print English literature intended to
teach Christians about Islam which say such things as: "Allah is
the god of the Muslims" and that "Muhammad came to get
people to believe in the god Allah" - implying that "Allah"
is some sort of false "god". However, when these same
organizations print literature in the Arabic language, hoping to lead
Arabic-speaking Muslims "to Christ", they use the word "Allah"
for God. It seems that if they were on the side of truth, they would not
have to resort to such inconsistencies. And on an even more ridiculous
note . . . there are also missionary organizations that exceed this
in ignorance (or deceit) by writing books that call on Muslims to give up
their belief in "Allah", and instead worship the
"Lord" Jesus, "the Son of God". Besides
making it abundantly clear that they are outside the community of Pure
Monotheism, the people who write such material don't even realize that if
they wrote such a pamphlet in Arabic, it would be self-contradictory. This
is because in an Arabic Bible Jesus is the "Son of Allah"!
If an Arabic-speaking person gave up the worship of "Allah",
they would have no God to worship, since "Allah" is
simply the Arabic word for God!
we conclude, however, we would like to ask our readers to ask themselves
what they think the reasons are behind all of these lies? If Islam was
just some false religion that didn't make any sense, would so many people,
from Western scholars to Christian missionaries, have to tell so many lies
about it? The reason is that the Ultimate Truth of Islam stands on solid
ground and its unshakable belief in the Unity of God is above reproach.
Due to this, Christians can't criticize its doctrines directly, but
instead make up things about Islam that aren't true so that people lose
the desire to learn more. If Muslims were able to present Islam in the
proper way to people in the West, it surely might make many people
reconsider and re-evaluate their own beliefs. It is quite likely that
Christians, when they find out that there is a universal religion in the
world that teaches people to worship and love God, while also practicing
Pure Monotheism, would at least feel that they should re-examine the basis
for their own beliefs and doctrines.